In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic. The style can either be effective or ineffective, depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations.
1. Structural Framework
In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural Leaders focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation.
2. Human Resource Framework
In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocation, and empowerment. while in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization.
3. Political Framework
In an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation? Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary.
4. Symbolic Framework
In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision.
Forms of leadership according to the 4 frameworks:
Charismatic Leadership Charismatic Leadership is one of the more recent theories on leadership. Although not many studies have been done so far to test them, these theories suggest certain different and interesting ways of looking at leadership.
Charisma is a special characteristic of some leaders. People usually feel personally attracted to a charismatic leader. And the attraction can lead to a powerful leadership.
Phenomena that can be observed in charisma include:
Ø The followers trust the correctness of the leader's believes;
Ø The followers feel affection to the leader and obey the leader willingly;
Ø The followers feel an emotional involvement in the mission they are led to do.
Servant Leadership “The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. He or she is sharply different from the person who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions. For such it will be a later choice to serve – after leadership is established. The leader-first and the servant-first are two extreme types. Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature. He may be of type who ask the subordinate “How may I help you?”
Distributed Leadership It is essentially about sharing out leadership across the organization. Referred to as "informal", "emergent", "dispersed" or "distributed" leadership, this approach argues a less formalized model of leadership (where leadership responsibility is dissociated from the organizational hierarchy). It is proposed that individuals at all levels in the organization and in all roles (not simply those with an overt management dimension) can exert leadership influence over their colleagues and thus influence the overall direction of the organization.
The case for distributed leadership is based on three ideas:
Ø the belief in leadership teams
Ø the need for leadership to be shared, at all levels
Ø the creation of pools of talent for tomorrow‟s leaders
Leadership is not a new concept but over a period of time different theories,styles and approaches to leadership have evolved. This is one of the very signnfical quality required to manage the organizations well. It is a very challenging task. The success of any organization depends on his leaders. How they are able to influence the people and facilitate them towards attaining the organizations objectives.