Value is basic conviction and notions about what is right and wrong. They differ across culture, nations and generations.
Types of Values
Allport and his associates categorized values into six types.
1. Theoretical: Interested in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking.
2. Economic: Interest in usefulness and practicality, including the accumulation of wealth.
3. Aesthetic: Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony.
4. Social: Interest in people and love as a human relationship.
5. Political: Interest in graining power and influencing people.
6. Religious: Interest in unity and understanding the cosmos as a whole.
Rokeach, in his Value Survey (Rokeach Value Survey – RVS,1973), proposed two sets of values. They are: Terminal values and Instrumental values. Each set contains 18 individual value items. Terminal values refer to desirable end-states of existence, the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. Instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. This survey proposed that people in the same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values.
The terminal values and instrumental values proposed by RVS are listed below:
1. Equality (brotherhood and equal opportunity for all)
2. A comfortable life (a prosperous life)
3. An Exciting Life (a stimulating, active life)
4. Family Security (taking care of loved ones)
5. Freedom (independence and free choice)
6. Health (physical and mental well-being)
7. Inner Harmony (freedom from inner conflict)
8. Mature Love (sexual and spiritual intimacy)
9. National Security (protection from attack)
10. Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life)
11. Salvation (saved; eternal life)
12. Self-Respect (self-esteem)
13. A Sense of Accomplishment (a lasting contribution)
14. Social Recognition (respect and admiration)
15. True Friendship (close companionship)
16. Wisdom (a mature understanding of life)
17. A World at Peace (a world free of war and conflict)
18. A World of Beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)
Instrumental values reflect the means of achieving goals; that is, they represent the acceptable behavior to be used in achieving some end state.
1. Ambitious (hardworking and aspiring)
2. Broad-minded (open-minded)
3. Capable (competent; effective)
4. Clean (neat and tidy)
5. Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)
6. Forgiving (willing to pardon others)
7. Helpful (working for the welfare of others)
8. Honest (sincere and truthful)
9. Imaginative (daring and creative)
10. Independent (self-reliant; self-sufficient)
11. Intellectual (intelligent and reflective)
12. Logical (consistent; rational)
13. Loving (affectionate and tender)
14. Loyal (faithful to friends or the group)
15. Obedient (dutiful; respectful)
16. Polite (courteous and well-mannered)
17. Responsible (dependable and reliable)
18. Self-controlled (restrained; self-disciplined)