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Friday, July 13, 2012

Introduction - Motivation

There is a common myth about motivation that considers motivation as a personal trait – that is, some have it and others do not. Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. Motivation is “the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal” (Robbins, 2003). Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization. And Persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.

Motivation means to move. It includes three common characteristics:

1. It concerns with what activates human behaviour.
2. It involves what directs this behaviour towards a particular goal.
3. Motivation concerns how this behaviour is sustained (supported).

The definition of motivation is to impel to action. To be motivated is a challenge in this day and time. One must realize what influences them, whether it is positive or negative. Motivation requires self discipline, and a scope of self actualization. Therefore, perceptual wise, regardless of the situation and/or circumstances, your thinking evolves to the next level; whereby you will be able to determine what basically impels you, to go beyond that which is expected. This empowers you to continue on to reach your goals through self determination and aspirations. Motivation also starts with dreams or a vision. Without someone having a dream or vision, we would not have the life we have today.

Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs, motivating employees is arguably the most complex.

The motivating factors are:

a) job security,
b) sympathetic help with personal problems,
c) personal loyalty to employees,
d) interesting work,
e) good working conditions,
f) tactful discipline,
g) good wages,
h) promotions and growth in the organization,
i) feeling of being in on things,
j) full appreciation of work done.

Steps of Motivation

1. Need
2. Drive / Goal Directed Behaviour
3. Goal
4. Incentives / Relief

1. Needs (desires or wants): When there is a physiological or psychological imbalance accompanied by arousal, then it leads to creation of needs. E.g. need for water/food. These needs arise when a person a hungry or thirsty. Similarly need for affiliation/friend arise when the person is deprived of the company of other people.

2. Drives: Drives or motives are specific condition that directs an organism towards its goal.

3. Goal: Attainment of an appropriate goal.

4. Reliefs/Incentives: At this stage there is a reduction of the driving state and subjective satisfaction and relief when the goal is reached.

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