Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence” (Rokeach, 1973). When the values are ranked in terms of their intensity, i.e., when the value are prioritized in terms of their intensity, it is called value system. Types of values include, ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (political, religious) values, social values, and aesthetic values.
Values have both content and intensity attributes.
1. The content attribute signifies that a mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important.
2. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is.
3. Ranking an individual‟s values in terms of their intensity equals that person‟s value system.
Values build the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation of an individual, since; value has a great impact on perceptions. Values shape relationships, behaviors, and choices. The more positive our values, more positive are people‟s actions. A significant portion of the values an individual holds is established in the early years – from parents, teachers, friends, and others.